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Energy Flow Relationships in Asian Rice Systems

Published by the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, St. Joseph, Michigan

Citation:  Paper number  028019,  2002 ASAE Annual Meeting . (doi: 10.13031/2013.9242) @2002
Authors:   William J. Chancellor
Keywords:   Rice, Production-Systems, Energy-Use, Asia, Water, Nitrogen, Fossil-Fuels

The rice-energy system is described as one composed of six human-managed subsystems: (1) rice fields, (2) other fields and forests, (3) rice farming households, (4) animal enterprises, (5) thermo-mechanical systems, and (6) rice processing. These are linked to two global cycles, the hydrologic cycle and the natural nitrogen fixation cycle, as well as to the human-made counterparts of these two cycles. Both renewable and fossil-fuel energy transfers among each of the sub-systems are documented quantitatively from the technical literature. It is found that traditional rice production has been constrained by natural supply rates of water and nitrogen, and that there are fossil-fuel-based procedures for overcoming these constraints. The entire system is examined with regard to possible amplification of the role of renewable energy resources in a modern, high-production rice system.

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