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SEWAGE EFFLUENT DISCHARGE REGULATIONS FOR IRRIGATION DEVELOPMENT IN THE MIDDLE EAST REGION
Published by the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, St. Joseph, Michigan www.asabe.orgCitation: Pp. 288-294 in On-Site Wastewater Treatment, Proc. Ninth Natl. Symp. on Individual and Small Community Sewage Systems (11-14 March 2001, Fort Worth, Texas, USA), ed. K. Mancl., St. Joseph, Mich. ASAE 701P0009.(doi:10.13031/2013.6037)
Authors: T. Sammis, B. Stewart, W. Zachritz
Keywords: Sewage disposal, Wastewater, Internet, Agriculture
Water shortages have plagued the Middle East region since early civilizations. Today, water continues to be overexploited. The water resource problem remains one of the most complex and urgent of any region in the world. The agriculture sector is the major consumer of water in the Middle East region, utilizing in some countries up to 80 percent of available water. As water demand increases in the region, with decreasing supplies, the efficient use of water will need to be improved in all sectors. Agriculture will face increased economic pressure from municipal and industrial users. Treated sewage wastewater is an alternative water source for agriculture. Because water knows no political boundaries, pollution control methods and degree of treatment in one country will affect the management of water resources in another country. Therefore, the use of wastewater in agriculture will need similar standards throughout the region. Currently, each country has a unique system of rules and regulations to protect the quality of their water resources. To improve and coordinate the waste water treatment policies of each country it is essential to understand the similarities and differences in water regulatory systems. This paper describes an Internet site that presents information on the current water quality laws, regulations and application standards for discharge of wastewater into rivers, lakes and irrigation systems in Egypt, Israel, Jordan and the Palestinian Authority. It is hoped that policy makers and extension agents will use the Internet site to compare their system of regulations with those of their neighbors and to make changes based on knowledge gained from such comparisons.(Download PDF) (Export to EndNotes)