Click on “Download PDF” for the PDF version or on the title for the HTML version.

If you are not an ASABE member or if your employer has not arranged for access to the full-text, Click here for options.

Improving Milk Value Chains: A Case Study for Qualitative-Economic Feasibility of Decentralized Solar Milk Pasteurization and Chilling Processes

Published by the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, St. Joseph, Michigan

Citation:  Applied Engineering in Agriculture. 38(2): 409-419. (doi: 10.13031/aea.14805) @2022
Authors:   Khawar Saeed Khan, Anjum Munir, Ali Raza, Yasir Latif, Oliver Hensel
Keywords:   Milk adulteration, On-farm solar milk processing, Solar milk chiller, Solar milk pasteurizer.


Solar-based milk pasteurization enables decentralized maintenance of milk quality, particularly in remote areas of developing countries.

Study for milk quality processed with solar technologies.

Payback period calculation for indigenous machines.

Comparative prices analysis of available commercially packed milk with solar process milk.

Abstract.Milk adulteration is common and inevitable which pledges milk quality after processing and lasts in whole supply chain, particularly in least developed countries (LDCs) like Pakistan. The dairy farmers must sell raw milk due to inadequate farm-gate milk processing facilities leading to economic and quality compromises for producers and consumers, respectively. The present study pursues the milk quality and techno-economic analysis of the processed milk (pasteurized and chilled) with indigenously developed Solar Milk Chiller (SMC) and Solar Milk Pasteurizer (SMP) compared to the existing milk value chain.. The processed milk contains fat (5.4%), solid-not-fat (9.1%), salts (0.7%), protein (3.9%), lactose (4.2%), total solids (14.5%), pH (6.85), density (1.031 kg/L), and freezing point (-0.532°C). The results of sensory evaluation using a 9-point hedonic scale showed overall likeness towards solar processed milk in terms of taste, color, aroma, and freshness. The processed milk costs USD 0.003 per liter with extended shelf life and superior in quality compared to locally available open (non-packaged) and packaged milk. With an estimated operational lifespan of 10 years, the payback periods for SMC and SMP have been found to be 1.3 to 4.5 and 1.1 to 2.7 years, respectively, depending upon the alternate source for equivalent energy generation.

(Download PDF)    (Export to EndNotes)