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Spatial and Seasonal Variations of PM Concentration and Size Distribution in Manure-Belt Poultry Layer Houses

Published by the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, St. Joseph, Michigan

Citation:  Transactions of the ASABE. 62(2): 415-427. (doi: 10.13031/trans.12950) @2019
Authors:   Reyna M. Knight, Xinjie Tong, Zhenyu Liu, Sewoon Hong, Lingying Zhao
Keywords:   Air quality, Particulate matter, Poultry housing, Seasonal variation, Spatial variation.

Abstract. Poultry layer houses are a significant source of particulate matter (PM) emissions, which potentially affect worker and animal health. Particulate matter characteristics, such as concentration and size distribution inside layer houses, are critical information for assessment of the potential health risks and development of effective PM mitigation technologies. However, this information and its spatial and seasonal variations are lacking for typical layer facilities. In this study, two TSI DustTrak monitors (DRX 8533) and an Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (APS 3321) were used to measure PM mass concentrations and number-weighted particle size distributions in two typical manure-belt poultry layer houses in Ohio in three seasons: summer, autumn, and winter. Bimodal particle size distributions were consistently observed. The average count median diameters (mean ±SD) were 1.68 ±0.25, 2.16 ±0.31, and 1.87 ±0.07 μm in summer, autumn, and winter, respectively. The average geometric standard deviations of particle size were 2.16 ±0.23, 2.16 ±0.18, and 1.74 ±0.17 in the three seasons, respectively. The average mass concentrations were 67.4 ±54.9, 289.9 ±216.2, and 428.1 ±269.9 μg m-3 for PM2.5; 73.6 ±59.5, 314.6 ±228.9, and 480.8 ±306.5 μg m-3 for PM4; and 118.8 ±99.6, 532.5 ±353.0, and 686.2 ±417.7 μg m-3 for PM10 in the three seasons, respectively. Both statistically significant (p < 0.05) and practically significant (difference of means >20% of smaller value) seasonal variations were observed. Spatial variations were only practically significant for autumn mass concentrations, likely due to external dust infiltration from nearby agricultural activities. The OSHA-mandated permissible exposure limit for respirable PM was not exceeded in any season.

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