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Ammonia and Size Fractioned Particulate Matter Emission Factors for a Cage-Free Layer Facility in Canada

Published by the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, St. Joseph, Michigan

Citation:  10th International Livestock Environment Symposium (ILES X)  .(doi:10.13031/iles.18-052)
Authors:   Jaime E Anderson, Patrick K McGrath, Hanna A Ivankovic, Bill J Van Heyst
Keywords:   Ammonia, cage-free, emission factor, layer, particulate matter


Pollutants resulting from poultry housing facilities are of great concern to the environment, public health and hen welfare. A shift in consumer attitudes towards hen welfare has influenced food distributors to publicly commit to transitioning exclusively to the use of eggs from cage-free housing systems. To meet the needs of consumers, the egg production industry is having to largely transition to cage-free, enriched-cage or free-run systems. To assess the environmental sustainability of cage-free housing, a one-year measurement campaign was conducted to determine the emission factors of ammonia (NH3) and size fractioned particulate matter (PM2.5 & PM10) from a commercial cage-free facility in Perth County Ontario. The emission factors, determined experimentally, were compared to the emission levels reported in literature for conventional battery cages. The average emissions of NH3, PM2.5 and PM10 were 81.41 ± 42.92, 24.93 ± 5.47 and 51.78 ± 13.19 g d-1 AU-1 (AU – Animal Unit equivalent to 500 kg live mass), respectively. The emission rates found in this study were higher than those for conventional battery cage layer facilities.

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