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Enzymatic Wheat Germ Oil Degumming

Published by the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, St. Joseph, Michigan

Citation:  Transactions of the ASABE. 58(6): 1867-1872. (doi: 10.13031/trans.58.11032) @2015
Authors:   Shaymaa Al Sharqi, Nurhan Turgut Dunford, Carla Goad
Keywords:   Enzymatic degumming, Lecitase ultra, Lysomax, Wheat germ oil.

Abstract. Wheat germ oil (WGO) contains significantly higher amounts of phospholipids than commodity oils. The high phospholipid content in WGO adversely affects its appearance and gives it a very dark and cloudy appearance. Previous studies have demonstrated that water and acid degumming, which are commonly used for commodity oils, are not effective for WGO. This study examined the efficiency of enzymatic degumming for removing phospholipids from hexane extracted and mechanically pressed crude WGO. Two enzymes, Lecitase Ultra and Lysomax, were examined. Process variables (water:oil ratio, reaction time, and temperature) were evaluated for high oil yield and low residual phospholipid content in degummed WGO. Degumming with Lecitase Ultra was more effective than Lysomax. Both enzymes, Lecitase Ultra (219 mg kg-1 residual phosphorus in the oil) and Lysomax (294 mg kg-1 residual phosphorus), were more effective than water and acid degumming. The oil yields under the conditions that resulted in the highest phospholipid removal (84% to 88% removal) were about 88.7% and 89.6% for Lecitase Ultra and Lysomax, respectively. Significant amounts of tocopherols were lost during enzymatic degumming.

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