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Load Characteristics of 30 and 75 kW Agricultural Tractors during Field Operations

Published by the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, St. Joseph, Michigan

Citation:  Paper number  131590237,  2013 Kansas City, Missouri, July 21 - July 24, 2013. (doi: @2013
Authors:   Myong-Jin Ryu, Sin-Woo Kang, Sun-Ok Chung, Yong-Joo Kim, Dae-Hyun Lee, Chang-Hyun Choi
Keywords:   Agricultural Tractor Field Operation Pre-processing Load Analysis FFT Analysis

Abstract. Development of highly efficient and energy-saving tractors has been one of the issues in agricultural machinery. For design of such tractors, measurement and analysis of load on major power transmission parts of the tractors are most important pre-requisite tasks. Objectives of the paper were to measure load data of major power transmission and consuming parts of agricultural tractors, and to analyze time-domain and frequency-domain characteristics of the load data. Two different tractors (30 and 75 kW) were used in the study. A load measurement systems were equipped in the tractors, and the system consisted of strain-gauge, encoder, hydraulic pressure, and radar speed sensors to measure torque and rotational speed levels of transmission input shaft, PTO shaft, and driving axle shafts, pressure of the hydraulic inlet line, and travel speed, respectively, and the entire sensor data were collected at a 200-Hz rate. Plow tillage, rotary tillage, baling, wrapping, and loader operations were selected as major field operations of agricultural tractors. Transmission and PTO speed levels of each operation were selected through interviews with farmers. Before load data analysis, pre-processing of the sensor signals was performed. Measured load data were divided into five sections: driving, working, implement up, implement down, and turning. In each section, power levels of the major power transmission and consuming parts were calculated from the measured sensor values. Time domain descriptive analysis showed that average values of the power consumption of 75-kW tractor were in order of plow tillage (35.6 kW), rotary tillage (52.9 kW), baler operation (29.9 kW) and wrapping operation (10.4 kW), respectively. Frequency-domain analysis using the FFT technique was also conducted to understand cyclic load patterns and detect and reduce possible noise components. Expected cyclic load components were about 3, 35~42, and 40~50 Hz for the plow tillage, rotary tillage, and baler operation, respectively. FFT analysis resulted in similar frequency components, except in the case of tillage operations, possibly due to interaction between the implements and soils. Based on the results, load simulations of each operation would be possible using characteristics of the tractor load for life design of a hybrid tractor. And it would be also useful for soil specific field operations under optimum load conditions.

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