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Deriving Parameters of a Fundamental Detachment Model for Cohesive Soils from Flume and Jet Erosion Tests

Published by the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, St. Joseph, Michigan www.asabe.org

Citation:  Transactions of the ASABE. 56(2): 489-504. (doi: 10.13031/2013.42669) @2013
Authors:   Abdul-Sahib T. Al-Madhhachi, Gregory J. Hanson, Garey A. Fox, Avdhesh K. Tyagi, Rifat Bulut
Keywords:   Cohesive soils Detachment rate model Erodibility Flume Jet erosion test Shear stress.
<italic>Abstract.</italic>

The erosion rate of cohesive soils is commonly quantified using the excess shear stress model, which is dependent on two major soil parameters: the critical shear stress (τc) and the erodibility coefficient (kd). A submerged jet test (jet erosion test, or JET) is one method that has been developed for measuring these parameters. The disadvantage of using the excess shear stress model is that parameters τc and kd change according to erosion conditions, such as soil structure, soil orientation, type of clay, presence of roots, and seepage forces. A more mechanistically based detachment model, called the Wilson model, is proposed in this article for modeling the erosion rate of soils using hydraulic analysis of a JET. The general framework of the Wilson model is based on two soil parameters (b0 and b1). The objectives of this study were to: (1) develop methods of analysis of the JET to determine parameters b0 and b1 for the Wilson model in a similar fashion to the previous methodology developed for open-channel flow, and (2) compare the excess stress model parameter (kd) and the Wilson model parameters (b0 and b1) determined from the flume tests and JETs for two cohesive soils. Flume tests, treated as the standard test method, and original and “mini” JETs were conducted on two soils to independently measure the excess shear stress model parameter (kd) and the Wilson model parameters (b0 and b1). Soil samples of two cohesive soils (silty sand and clayey sand soils) were packed in a soil box for the flume tests and the JETs at water contents ranging from 8.7% to 18.1%. No statistically significant differences were observed for the excess shear stress model parameter (kd) and for the Wilson model parameters (b0 and b1) when determined from the flume tests and JET devices, except for b1 with the original JET. The Wilson model is advantageous in being a more mechanistic, fundamentally based erosion equation as compared to the excess shear stress model. The Wilson model can be used in place of the excess shear stress model with parameters that can be estimated using existing JET techniques.

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