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CIGR Handbook of Agricultural Engineering, Volume V Energy and Biomass Engineering, Chapter 3 Biomass Engineering, Part 3.2 Biomass Gas Fuels, Part 3.2.2 Pyrolysis Gas

Published by the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, St. Joseph, Michigan www.asabe.org

Citation:  CIGR Handbook of Agricultural Engineering, Volume V Energy and Biomass Engineering, Chapter 3 Biomass Engineering, Part 3.2 Biomass Gas Fuels, Part 3.2.2 Pyrolysis Gas, pp 222-248.  .(doi:10.13031/2013.36420)
Authors:   B. M. Jenkins
Keywords:   Section Headings: Overview of Gasification Technology, Chemistry of Gasification, Gasification Reactors, Gas Utilization

First paragraph: On heating, biomass fuels spontaneously decompose into a number of gaseous and condensable species, leaving behind a solid carbonaceous residue known as char. This decomposition under heating without the need for added oxygen is referred to as pyrolysis. Pyrolysis is an integral part of solid fuel combustion, and the flame seen when burning wood and other biomass in an open fire is primarily the result of the combustion of volatile compounds emitted during pyrolysis. Pyrolysis can be physically separated from combustion to produce a fuel gas by excluding or limiting oxygen from the reaction. The production of fuel gases from biomass or coal in the presence of oxygen is more appropriately referred to as gasification. The heating of the fuel may be accomplished indirectly by means of heat transfer through the walls of the reactor or some internal heat exchanger or directly by the addition of sufficient oxidant to oxidize the fuel partially with inte rparticle and intraparticle heat transport resulting from the energy released by the oxidation reactions. The result is a gas rich in carbon monoxide, hydrogen, and hydrocarbons that can be used as fuel or feedstock for furnaces, engines, chemical processing, and possibly advanced power-conversion technologies such as fuel cells.

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