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CIGR Handbook of Agricultural Engineering, Volume V Energy and Biomass Engineering, Chapter 3 Biomass Engineering, Part 3.2 Biomass Gas Fuels, Part 3.2.1 Methane

Published by the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, St. Joseph, Michigan www.asabe.org

Citation:  CIGR Handbook of Agricultural Engineering, Volume V Energy and Biomass Engineering, Chapter 3 Biomass Engineering, Part 3.2 Biomass Gas Fuels, Part 3.2.1 Methane, pp. 201-222.  .(doi:10.13031/2013.36419)
Authors:   T. Maekawa
Keywords:   Section Headings: Outline of Methane Fermentation Technology, Principles of Methane Fermentation, Required Operational Condition for Methane Fermentation, On-Site Methane Fermentation Technology

First paragraph: Methane as a biomass gas fuel does not currently play a role as an alternative energy resource. It is now famous for the greenhouse effect because methane is a natural component of the atmosphere, arising from forest fires, swamps, and other wetland. The ghostly will-o-the wisp that inhabits swamps is nothing but burning methane emitted from the swamp. The methane has caught fire and continues to burn as the gas seeps out of the watery zone. Methane also seeps out of landfills and paddy rice. The gas is also produced in the guts of the ruminant species we use for food such as sheep, steers, cattle, and water buffalo. Fortunately methane molecules survive in the atmosphere only 10 years, so efforts to control methane emissions would have a near-term pay-off. Although the methane is not a dominant energy resource, methane fermentation is one of the effective methods in biomass conversions and is also effective for wastewater management. It is a special production system for bioenergy production and wastewater treatment in rural areas. The cost analysis concluded by Maekawa [1] indicated that biogas production cost per 4.18 MJ (1000 kcal) generated from a methane fermentor of less than 100 m3 was higher than the cost of fossil oil, as shown in Fig. 3.19. Therefore, since 1985, we have been studying the development of a higher-performance methane fermentation system.

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