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CIGR Handbook of Agricultural Engineering, Volume V Energy and Biomass Engineering, Chapter 3 Biomass Engineering, Part 3.1 Biomass Liquid Fuels, Part 3.1.2 Vegetable Oils and Their Esters (biodiesel)

Published by the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, St. Joseph, Michigan www.asabe.org

Citation:  CIGR Handbook of Agricultural Engineering, Volume V Energy and Biomass Engineering, Chapter 3 Biomass Engineering, Part 3.1 Biomass Liquid Fuels, Part 3.1.2 Vegetable Oils and Their Esters (biodiesel), pp. 164-201.  .(doi:10.13031/2013.36418)
Authors:   G. Riva, F. Sissot
Keywords:   Section Headings: Overview, Chemistry of Vegetable Oils, Production Chains for Energy Applications, Raw Oil Production from Seeds, Oil Depuration and Refining, Other Refining Methods, Oil Esterification, Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Oils and Esters, Energy Uses, Other Derived Products, Standardization

First paragraph: Vegetable oils are used for food, as industrial raw materials, and for the generation of energy. In 1995, world oil production exceeded 100 Mt (millions of metric tons) [1], nearly all of which was destined for use as food. An increase in production (to 120 Mt by 2005) is expected because of the current market trends of two major buyers, the Community of Independent States and China, and the population and income patterns of developing countries. As a result, interest in the food end uses of oils is expected to grow, with a consequent rise in product price. However, there are also certain regions that are characterized by surplus oil production (e.g., the US, for soybean), the capability of producing nonfood crops (e.g., the EU), the availability of marginal land or indigenous oleaginous crops suitable for an extensive cropping (e.g., certain developing countries). Moreover, the need to control pollution processes and to explore more sustainable production chains is fostering interest in renewable raw materials. This means that, in almost all countries, vegetable oils have excellent potential for use in nonfood applications. Among these, energy production is one of the most feasible applications for two main reasons: relatively low-quality requirements and the possibility of using large quantities of product.

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