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Ammonia Emission, Manure Nutrients And Egg Production Of Laying Hens Fed Distiller Dried Grain Diets

Published by the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, St. Joseph, Michigan

Citation:  International Symposium on Air Quality and Manure Management for Agriculture Conference Proceedings, 13-16 September 2010, Dallas, Texas  711P0510cd.(doi:10.13031/2013.32662)
Authors:   Eileen Fabian Wheeler, Paul Patterson, Hongwei Xin, Richard Gates, Chad Gregory, Ahmet Pekel, Heather Burley, Adrizal Adrizal, Patrick Topper, Arlene Adviento-Borbe
Keywords:   Emission, mitigation, diet, poultry, ammonia, gas, egg, production

A USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, Conservation Innovation Grant project coordinated by the United Egg Producers (UEP) conducted concurrent demonstrations in Iowa and Pennsylvania (PA) at commercial laying hen facilities. The goal was to document manure nutrient and gas emission improvements through the use of dried distillers grain with solubles (DDGS) diets and/or other dietary modifications while maintaining or improving hen productivity. Results of the PA trial are presented here. Diets containing 10% corn DDGS with (D+P) or without (D) the probiotic Provalen were compared to a corn-soybean based control diet (CON). The isocaloric, amino acid balanced diets were fed to three groups of 39,800 Lohmann hens in one house. Hens were 20-65 wk of age with each diet provided to 2 of 6 rows of stacked cages with manure belts (six decks high). Feed intake, water consumption, hen body weight (BW), egg production (EP,) egg case weight, mortality, feed cost (FC), and egg income (EI) were provided weekly by the cooperating egg company. Replicated monthly data, including egg weight (EW), albumen height (AH), Haugh units (HU), yolk color (YC), shell strength (SS) and shell thickness (ST), were determined from eggs collected from six 4-cage sections of hens on each diet. Replicated monthly samples of hen manure (fresh and from storage) were analyzed for moisture and major nutrients. Ammonia (NH3) gas measurements utilized a non-steady state flux chamber method coupled with photoacoustic infrared gas analyzer. There was no clear trend in the magnitude of NH3 emissions relative to the diets within the hen house as measured on the manure belt. At 32 and 36 wks of age, NH3 emissions were significantly (P < 0.10) higher in D while D+P and CON were lower and similar. At 48 and 52 wks, NH3 emissions from D were similar to D+P and significantly lower than CON. Emission rate from belt manure averaged 0.42 0.025 g bird-1 d-1 for all treatments and dates. There was no significant impact of diet on BW, EW, HU, SS, or ST (P =0.10 to 0.66), however, CON hens had lower EP, AH, and YC compared to D and D+P hens (P=0.05). Fresh manure total phosphorus (P2O5) was higher for CON samples (P < 0.05) while other major agronomic nutrients and moisture were not significantly different among treatments. Stored CON manure samples had increased moisture and NH4-N compared to those of D and D+P treatments (P < 0.10). Weekly EI minus FC averaged $6,146, $6,215, and $6,209 for the CON, D, and D+P diets, respectively.

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