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A Review of Alternatives to Wheat Flour

Published by the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, St. Joseph, Michigan

Citation:  2010 Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, June 20 - June 23, 2010  1008668.(doi:10.13031/2013.29885)
Authors:   Shirin Pourafshar , Kurt A Rosentrater, Padmanaban Krishnan
Keywords:   All-purpose flour, Alternative flour, Fortification, Wheat flour.

For centuries, cereals have been major food stuffs used all around the world; because of that, there are many different kinds of breads produced from different types of flours. Despite the variety of flours available, there are still many challenges to produce ingredients which maximize nutrient components, and with which healthier breads and other products can be produced. As studies have shown, traditional wheat flour has some nutritional deficiencies (although this is a matter of perspective), which depend on the level of consumption. Additionally, gluten intolerance and Celiac disease are growing problems. The nutritional value of breads can be enhanced through the use of a variety of alternative flours. The objective of this study is to review and discuss alternatives to traditional wheat flour, with an emphasis on improved nutritional characteristics. Oat, for instance, has been used to improve the protein and fiber content of bread. Fortification of breads with soybean flour can also dramatically improve their protein quality. Barley, flaxseed, and rye flours can be used to increase the amount of dietary fiber in breads. Dietary fiber can reduce the risk of coronary heart disease, cancer, diabetes. Rye flour is recommended as an integral part of the diet as a source of biologically active substances. There are also other materials which can be used to add value to flour. One of them is DDGS, which is a co-product from the production of fuel ethanol from corn. By using alternative materials, traditional wheat flours can be fortified and their nutrient profiles enhanced.

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