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Shear and Three-Point Bending Test of Animal Bone

Published by the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, St. Joseph, Michigan

ASAE  ANSI/ASAE S459   March  1992

Keywords: Animal, Bone, Test

1 Purpose

1.1 This Standard is designed for use in determining the mechanical properties of animal bones such as the ultimate shear strength, ultimate bending strength, apparent modulus of elasticity, and fracture energy.

2 Scope

2.1 Shear and bending tests of intact animal bones provide an objective method for evaluating the effects of age, sex, nutrition, contaminants, and environment on the physical condition of the animal.

2.2 Understanding the problems encountered in evaluating the mechanical properties of animal bones and attempting to compare the results of previous investigators, has led to the need for a standard procedure for testing, data interpretation, and reporting of results.

2.3 The type of test selected, shear or three-point bending, will be dependent on the size and shape of the bone. The three-point bending tests should be used only when the bone is straight, has a symmetrical cross section, and has a support length to diameter ratio greater than 10. The shear test is good for any size or shape of bone.

2.4 Determination of the shear or bending properties of animal bone requires the development of a force-deformation curve. From a shear force-deformation curve, ultimate shear force, ultimate shear strength (stress), and fracture energy can be obtained. From a bending force-deformation curve, ultimate bending force, deformation to fracture, ultimate bending strength (stress), apparent modulus of elasticity, and fracture energy can be obtained. Any of these mechanical properties can be used for the purpose of evaluation, and it is recommended that more than one property be used.

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