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Water Politics and Law for trans-boundary level (example of Central Asia)

Published by the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, St. Joseph, Michigan

Citation:  Watershed ManWatershed Management to Meet Water Quality Standards and TMDLS (Total Maximum Daily Load) Proceedings of the 10-14 March 2007, San Antonio, Texas  701P0207.(doi:10.13031/2013.22472)
Authors:   Yusup Khaidarovich Rysbekov
Keywords:   Central Asia, Aral Sea Basin, Post-Soviet period, Independent States, Interstate Water Relations, Water Law and Politics, Regional Water Security

Up to 1992 water resources management (WRM) in Central Asia (CA) was carried out: at national level by republican legislation, at regional - by Decisions of the Main Water Agency USSR. Declaration of Independence by the CA states (CASs) has caused necessity of water legislations processing at national and interstate levels. During 1993, 1994 the Water Laws in Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan were accepted. The Water Code of Turkmenistan from 1973 has remained working till 2004. Last years the Water Codes in the new edition are accepted in Tajikistan (2000), Kazakhstan (2003), Turkmenistan (2004), and Kyrgyzstan (2005). At regional level sustainable WRM depends on coordinated actions of CASs, what needs development of coordinated water politics and legislation. Acceptance of the appropriate political decisions - most "advanced" part in sphere of the interstate water relations in CA. Last 14 years on one other problem the Heads of the CASs didn't meet so often, as on water and ecological (Almaty, 1992; Kyzylorda, 1993; Nukus, 1995; Bishkek, 1996; Ashgabat, 1999, Dushanbe, 2002, etc.). At the same time, a situation with development of the regional water legislation is more difficult: now only 4 Interstate Agreements (ISAs) are signed, namely: Kyzylorda ISA, 1993 (Parties of the Agreement: all CASs); Almaty ISA, 1992 (all CASs); Bishkek ISA, 1998 (Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan); Chardzhou ISA, 1996 (Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan). The Agreement 1993 signed by the Heads of CASs, is the more political document determining the basic directions of the WRM in CA..

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