Click on “Download PDF” for the PDF version or on the title for the HTML version.

If you are not an ASABE member or if your employer has not arranged for access to the full-text, Click here for options.


Published by the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, St. Joseph, Michigan

Citation:  Transactions of the ASAE. VOL. 40(3):683-689. (doi: 10.13031/2013.21287) @1997
Authors:   K. A. Rosentrater, R. A. Flores
Keywords:   Livestock byproducts, Blood, Swine

Blood, a valuable by-product of livestock slaughter, has numerous food, industrial, and pharmaceutical uses. Physical and rheological properties, including apparent viscosity, density, surface tension, thermal conductivity, and specific heat, are needed for the design of transport processes and by-product applications such as spray drying, blending, and extrusion. Information about these properties for slaughter by-products, however, is not currently available. Consequently, the objective of this study was to determine these properties for anticoagulated swine blood, blood plasma, and red blood cells between 5 and 35°C. The plasma in this study was enriched with hemoglobin from the red cells as a result of the rupture of red cells during frozen storage of the blood. These fluids all exhibited a pseudoplastic behavior which was affected by both shear rate and temperature; a nonlinear regression model which accounted for both factors was then determined for each fluid. In addition, these fluids all had density values 1.0 to 6.3% higher, and surface tension values 20.7 to 33.0% lower, than the respective values for water at temperatures between 5 and 35°C. Thermal conductivity results were 42.0 to 57.0% lower, and specific heat results were 9.0 to 17.4% lower, than the respective values for water at each temperature. Drying curves were also established for each fluid at drying temperatures of 80, 100, and 120°C.

(Download PDF)    (Export to EndNotes)