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Agricultural Tractor/Implement Drivelines

Published by the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, St. Joseph, Michigan

Citation:  Agricultural Tractor/Implement Drivelines. ASAE Distinguished Lecture No. 19, pp. 1-28. Winter Meeting of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers, 14 December 1994, Atlanta, Georgia  913C1994.(doi:)
Authors:   R. D. Mayhew
Keywords:   Implement Types, Trailing or Towed or Pull-type Implements, Semi-mounted, Three-Point Hitch or Mounted-type Implements, Stationary-type Implements, Driveline Arrangements, Two-joint Telescoping Driveline, Three-joint Driveline (Fixed Primary Driveline), Three-joint Driveline (Telescoping Primary Driveline), Four-joint Driveline (Telescoping Primary and Secondary Drivelines), Driveline Kinematics, Motion Characteristics, Equations of Motion, Equivalent Angle and Phasing, Angular Acceleration, Secondary Couple, Design Parameters, Driveline and Hitch Geometry, Driveline Angles, Telescoping Lengths, Critical Speed, Connecting or Telescoping Members, Guarding, Storage Position, Shaft Attachment, Tractor pto Shaft, Implement Input Shaft, Driveline Design Process, Two-joint Driveline Example, Three-joint Driveline Example, Driveline Size Selection, Torque Overload Protection, Shear Protection Devices, Disconnect Clutches, Torque Limiting Overload Protection, Friction Clutches, Ramp-type Clutches, Overrunning/Free-wheeling Overload Protection, ASAE Power Take-Off and Driveline Definitions, USA Standards for Agricultural Drivelines, ISO Standards for Agricultural Drivelines, European (CEN) Standards, Standards for Turf and Landscape Equipment Drivelines

The most efficient and economical method of transmitting power from an agricultural tractor to an agricultural implement is through a power take-off (pto) driveline. The agricultural tractor to implement driveline presents a challenge to the engineer because the universal joint angles vary continuously in three planes and telescope continuously in length, which requires a knowledgeable selection of components to attain a reasonable uniform transfer of motion. Most agricultural drivelines are designed for standard tractor pto shaft sizes and speeds. Other drivelines are used internally in the agricultural implements. International Harvester introduced the first practical pto on a farm tractor in 1918. The 540 rpm pto shaft, master shield, and drawbar relationship standard was developed by Equipment Manufacturers Institute (EMI) and American Society of Agricultural Engineers (ASAE) in 1926. In 1958 a standard for a 1000 rpm tractor pto shaft was published. In 1966 a pto shaft standard was published for higher horsepower tractors. The ASAE S203 (1994) or SAE J1170 (1993) standards give the details of the tractor pto shaft dimensions which have the following basic data:


1 540 rpm     1-3/8 (35 mm) x 6 Tooth Spline Shaft

2 1000 rpm     1-3/8 (35 mm) x 21 Tooth Spline Shaft

3 1000 rpm     1-3/4 (44.4 mm) x 20 Tooth Spline Shaft

The operating requirements for tractors and pto driven implements are given in ASAE S207 (1994) or SAE 721 (1993). The implement input driveline (IID) is defined as two universal joints with their connecting members and fastening means for transmitting rotational power from the tractor pto to the implement input connection (IIC). The implement power to driveline categories and specifications are given in ASAE S331 (1991).

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