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ANALYSIS OF ODOROUS COMPOUNDS IN SWINE BUILDINGS AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP TO THERMAL ENVIRONMENT, MANAGEMENT AND CATEGORIES OF PIGS
Published by the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, St. Joseph, Michigan www.asabe.org
Citation: Proceedings of the Seventh International Symposium, 18-20 May 2005 (Beijing, China) Publication Date 18 May 2005 701P0205.(doi:10.13031/2013.18383)
Authors: H. Takai, P.J. Dahl, F.Aa. Tøgersen, J.O. Johnsen, M. Maahn and H.T. Søgaard
Keywords: Odorous compounds, odor emission model, swine buildings, solid-phase microextraction, principal component analysis
The objective of the study described in this paper was to develop a method to examine the key
odorants (KOs) that can be used to study the effects of the thermal environment, the management
and the animal categories on odor emission in swine buildings. The study has included winter
and summer surveys at four different swine herds equipped with gestation, farrowing, rearing
and finishing buildings. The winter survey was carried out during the winter of 2003/04, and the
summer survey was carried out in the summer of 2004.
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Odorous compounds (odorants) in the buildings were sampled by use of the solid-phase microextraction
(SPME) technique and analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry
(GC/MS). The study included the following five key odorants: trimethyl amine, 1-butanol, 3-
methyl butanoic acid (iso-valeric acid), 4-methyl phenol (P-cresol) and 3-methyl 1H-indole
(skatole). The air temperature, relative humidity, body weight of the animals, ventilation rate and
cleanliness of the buildings were also determined. The CO2 balance method was used to estimate
the ventilation rate. The cleanliness of the building was evaluated using 5-step grading of the
floor wetness and the equipment and wall dustiness.
The study showed that the nature of the emissions of key odorants could be explored by means
of principal component analysis. About 80% of the variations from the observations could be
explained by the regression models that were developed in this study to predict emissions of the
key odorants from swine buildings. For further improvement of the models, the knowledge of the
process governing the development of odorous compounds in manure and the effects of animal
behavior on odor emissions should be incorporated in the models. The method developed by the
study showed ability to examine KOs and encourage further studies including other odorants
found in swine buildings.