Click on “Download PDF” for the PDF version or on the title for the HTML version.

If you are not an ASABE member or if your employer has not arranged for access to the full-text, Click here for options.


Published by the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, St. Joseph, Michigan

Citation:  Proceedings of the Seventh International Symposium, 18-20 May 2005 (Beijing, China) Publication Date 18 May 2005  701P0205.(doi:10.13031/2013.18350)
Authors:   Thomas M. Banhazi, Jens Seedorf, David L. Rutley and Wayne S. Pitchford
Keywords:   Air quality, airborne bacteria, survey, risk factors, endotoxin, microorganisms, emission

The concentrations of total airborne bacteria and respirable endotoxins were monitored in 160 piggery buildings in four states of Australia (Queensland, Victoria, Western and South Australia) between autumn 1997 and autumn 1999. The characteristics of the buildings and management systems used were documented at the time of sampling to identify the roles of these factors in contributing to airborne bacteria and endotoxin concentrations. The overall mean airborne bacteria concentration was 1.17 x 105 cfu/m3 and a mean internal concentration of 33.1 EU/m3 was measured for respirable endotoxins. In contrast to husbandry systems with no bedding material (median range of 0.68-0.90 x 105 cfu/m3), the deep-bedded shelters had a least squares median concentration for airborne bacteria of 2.17 x 105 cfu/m3 and endotoxin of 76.3 EU/m3. These endotoxin and airborne bacteria concentrations exceed exposure limits recommended in Australia and therefore could potentially compromise the health of animals and humans working in the buildings. In addition to the building type affect on both pollutants, endotoxin concentrations positively correlated with increased humidity and airborne bacteria concentrations increased as the level of pen hygiene decreased. These findings will aid the development of strategies for the industry, such as improved cleaning, to improve air quality in pig buildings and in the environment, improving health and welfare of both pigs and piggery staff.

(Download PDF)    (Export to EndNotes)