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Published by the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, St. Joseph, Michigan

Citation:  Transactions of the ASAE. 41(5): 1243-1248. (doi: 10.13031/2013.17289) @1998
Authors:   M. Iqbal, S. J. Marley, D. C. Erbach, T. C. Kaspar
Keywords:   Corn, Zea mays, L., Planting, Compaction, Furrow, Smearing, Coulter

Seed furrow sidewall smearing describes compaction of soil in the seed zone that is caused, in some soil conditions, by the planter furrow opener and that may interfere with crop stand establishment. Soil smearing caused by planting with double disk furrow openers was investigated by measuring physical properties of soil in the seed furrow and by evaluating corn (Zea mays, L.) emergence and growth. Planter attachments for row preparation (no-coulter, single offset bubble coulter, and triple offset fluted coulter planter attachments) were evaluated for their influence on seed furrow sidewall smearing over a range of soil moisture contents. Planting tended to reduce soil bulk density in the 0 to 100 mm layer in the seed zone. In general, the soil was least dense when the triple-coulter attachment was used. Air permeability of soil samples taken from the seed furrow sidewall, before the furrow was closed, tended to decrease with increasing soil moisture. The triple-coulter treatment resulted in greater air permeability than did other coulter treatments. Soil penetration resistance below the seed and in the seed furrow sidewall was greatest for the single coulter and least for the triple coulter. We observed that more roots grew parallel to the soil surface with no-coulter and single-coulter treatments than with the triple-coulter treatment especially when soil property measurements indicated that more sidewall smearing had occurred. This research showed that row preparation by coulter planter attachments placed ahead of double-disk openers can reduce seed furrow sidewall smearing and may improve stand establishment of corn.

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