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Published by the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, St. Joseph, Michigan

Citation:  Pp. 107-117 in Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) Environmental Regulations–II Proceedings of the 8-12 November 2003 Conference (Albuquerque, New Mexico USA), Publication Date 8 November 2003.  .(doi:10.13031/2013.15544)
Authors:   C. B. Lind
Keywords:   Phosphorus removal, Alum, Ferric sulfate, Struvite, Lake treatment, Lake restoration, Stormwater, Runoff

Chemical precipitation of phosphorus from municipal and industrial wastewater, and as a restoration practice in lake rehabilitation has been commonplace since 1970. This paper will review the efficiencies, and safety issues of the common chemical precipitants ferric sulfate, aluminum sulfate, ferric chloride, aluminum chloride, sodium aluminate and lime as they relate to phosphorus removal in point source applications. Aluminum sulfate, sodium aluminate and ferric sulfate are components of whole lake restoration. Properly and competently applied these materials reduce the bioavailable phosphorus by forming insoluble, inactive precipitates. These precipitates are incorporated into the sediments and prevent recycle of soluble P from sediments to the water column, further preventing eutrophication. This technology as it relates to animal waste lagoons and successful case studies in dairy, swine, poultry and beef feedlots is presented.

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