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SIZING AND MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS FOR SETTLING BASINS RECEIVING SAND-LADEN FLUSHED DAIRY MANURE
Published by the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, St. Joseph, Michigan www.asabe.org
Citation: Pp. 456-462 in the Ninth International Animal, Agricultural and Food Processing Wastes Proceedings of the 12-15 October 2003 Symposium (Research Triangle Park, North Carolina USA), Publication Date 12 October 2003. 701P1203.(doi:10.13031/2013.15283)
Authors: C. D. Fulhage
Keywords: Manure, Settling, Sand
In order to comply with nutrient management requirements, Missouri dairy producers are
interested in settling as a means of partitioning nutrients and recovering sand used for bedding.
Separation of solids also results in easier management of liquid storage facilities. This paper
summarizes management requirements and performance of a manure management system
utilizing flushing, sand bedding and a “porous-wall” settling basin based on a study of the
Echelmier Dairy near Fulton, Missouri.
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Two types of bedding sand were studied. “Classified” sand contained a significant percentage of
smaller sand and clay particles. “Concrete” sand was a coarser, graded material containing few
fine particles. The coarser sand was more expensive ($5.25/ton vs. $4.25/ton), resulted in
cleaner cows, was more difficult to flush, settled more readily, and harbored fewer bacteria
colonies in limited bacteriological studies.
The flush system provides a flow velocity of 5.2 ft/s(1.6 m/s) in the widest alley, which results in
acceptable sand removal. Records of sand purchased, and sand used to bed freestalls indicate
that about 75% of the sand flushed from the freestall barn is recovered from the settling basin for
re-use as bedding. The rate of sand use is estimated at about 65 lb(30 kg) sand/freestall-day.
The two-chambered settling basin provides about 45 days storage in each chamber for the sandladen
flushed manure from 450 cows (1,400 lb(636 kg) Holstein cows). Settled solids
accumulate in the basin at the calculated rate of 2.14 ft3(0.06 m3)/cow-day, and represent volume
fractions of about 0.55 ft3(0.016 m3)/cow-day for sand, and about 1.6 ft3(0.045 m3)/cow-day for
manure. Sand accounts for a significant fraction of basin volume, and should be considered in
Sand recovered from the settling basin is stockpiled for a “conditioning” period before re-use as
bedding. Most ideal results were obtained by allowing sand to “condition” for one month,
followed by a moving/mixing operation and an additional 1 week conditioning before re-use as
bedding. Limited bacteriological studies indicated similar bacteria profiles in “fresh” and recycled
sand when these procedures were followed.