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Diesel Engine Emissions Characteristics and Measurement Requirements of Biofuels

Published by the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, St. Joseph, Michigan

Citation:  Paper number  036032,  2003 ASAE Annual Meeting . (doi: 10.13031/2013.15047) @2003
Authors:   Michael R. Gratton, Alan C. Hansen
Keywords:   Emissions, Biofuel, Measurement, Biodiesel, E-Diesel, Particulates, NOX, Unregulated Emissions, Mobile Source Air Toxics

Biofuels can complement aftertreatment technologies as nonroad engine manufacturers strive to reduce emissions for proposed Tier 4 standards. Oxygenated biofuels such as biodiesel and E-Diesel are biodegradable, non-toxic, renewable alternatives to imported petroleum diesel with significant PM emissions reduction benefits. Substantial biodiesel emissions data have been accumulated for highway engines, but data is lacking on the effects of E-Diesel and biodiesel on nonroad engine emissions. Instrumentation required for petroleum diesel emissions measurements are apparently suitable for biofuels. Fuels with low volatility and a high SOF of particulates (like biodiesel) have shown extreme sensitivity to HC and PM measurement conditions, so discretion must be used. With greater awareness of nanoparticles health impacts, biofuels particulate size emissions necessitate comparison with petroleum diesel. Because of discrepancies between steady-state and transient test cycles, proposed Tier 4 regulations more accurately replicate in-field operation with the nonroad transient test cycle and cold start tests. Enforcing not-to-exceed requirements and truly understanding emissions generation (from petroleum diesel and biofuels alike) will likely be accomplished with future onboard emissions measurement systems.

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