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Effects of Sand Layer on Subsurface-Slit Drainage and Drainage Water Quality in Golf Courses
Published by the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, St. Joseph, Michigan www.asabe.org
Citation: Paper number 032322, 2003 ASAE Annual Meeting . (doi: 10.13031/2013.14982) @2003
Authors: S. Gin, Sietan Chieng
Keywords: Drainage, water quality, golf course, irrigation, nitrogen, turfgrass sand, soil
A study was conducted to examine the effects of sand layer on drainage performance and the nitrogen and
phosphorus contents in drainage water in golf courses. Comparisons between the drainage patterns and TKN
concentrations for soil profiles receiving different quantities of irrigation water were made.
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Within the range of USGA specifications, different sand-soil thicknesses in soil profile within the root zone were
examined. Best drainage performance was found in soil profile with sand:soil ratio of 10:8 and 8:10. In all cases, an
increase in the thickness of the sand layer improved the drainage performance.
It was found that the greater the amount of irrigation water applied the higher the amount of nitrogen in the drainage
water. When the lapse-time between irrigation and fertilizer application increased, the amount of nitrogen leaching
decreased. The concentration of TKN in the drainage water increased as the thickness of the sand layer increased. The
TKN concentration ranged from 0.07 mg/L in soil profile without sand layer to 3.15 mg/L in soil with sand layer.
From the results of the study, it is estimated that an amount of 757,000 Kg TKN may be leached from a golf course during
the three peak summer months (June to August) in the Greater Vancouver area. This amount of nitrogen could have a
significant impact on ground and surface water quality. Improving the irrigation efficiency to satisfy the turf water
requirements would significantly reduce the amount of drainage water from the golf.