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Quality Evaluation of Apples Based on Surface Defects – An Inspection Station Design

Published by the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, St. Joseph, Michigan www.asabe.org

Citation:  Paper number  036161,  2003 ASAE Annual Meeting . (doi: 10.13031/2013.14146) @2003
Authors:   J. A. Throop, D. J. Aneshansley, W. C. Anger, D. L. Peterson
Keywords:   Apples, Apple Grading, Automated Inspection, Apple Sorting, Defects, Defect Detection

A redesign of a multi spectral apple inspection station including a new conveyor for apple orientation, new multi spectral optics, light emitting diode (LED) lighting system, and new algorithms that determines the processed area based on measured apple size is presented.

The new conveyor design oriented apples so that the stem/calyx ends were not visible during image capture. Multi spectral optics fabricated using a multi-vision linear filter mounted in front of the camera lens provided three different waveband (740nm, 950nm, visible) images of an apple on a single camera array. Interference filters placed in the optical path provided the different wavebands.

Alternating 740nm and 950nm LEDS mounted in rows on panels and diffusers and reflectors placed in front of each panel reflected light onto the apple surface. The intensity control provided normalization for both object geometry and camera waveband response.

A method was shown for setting the region of interest (ROI) by measuring diameter and height of each apple from an image captured just before the 6 views were captured for defect processing.

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