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Beneficial Reuse of C-STONETM and Fly Ash as a Liner for Livestock Lots

Published by the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, St. Joseph, Michigan

Citation:  Paper number  034163,  2003 ASAE Annual Meeting . (doi: 10.13031/2013.13902) @2003
Authors:   Michael A. Cox
Keywords:   C-STONE, Fly Ash, Livestock Lots

The use of C-STONETM and fly ash/soil mixture as a liner for livestock lots was evaluated, which could provide a beneficial reuse of waste products from burning of coal for energy. The following materials were evaluated for hydraulic conductivity: Onsite soil (SP-SM), soil mixed with 15% portland cement, soil mixed with 30% Class C fly ash, soil mixed with 30% C-STONETM, and CSTONETM. The hydraulic conductivity of the C-STONETM material was one to two log cycles less than the base soil at 1.3 x 10-3 cm/sec. Compressive strengths of the soil/portland cement mixture and the C-STONETM were tested. The compressive strength of the C-STONETM is adequate for the anticipated design loads of livestock and farm equipment. The C-STONETM will provide environmental benefits by providing a much less permeable liner to reduce infiltration into sandy soil onsite. The cost of the C-STONETM as a slab or base is about one-fourth the cost of using concrete.

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