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Non-destructive apple bruise on-line test and classification with Raman spectroscopy

Published by the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, St. Joseph, Michigan www.asabe.org

Citation:  Paper number  033025,  2003 ASAE Annual Meeting . (doi: 10.13031/2013.13842) @2003
Authors:   Xiaoyang Gao, Paul H. Heinemann, Joseph Irudayaraj
Keywords:   Raman spectroscopy, apple, bruise detection, CVA, UNEQ class model

A prototype automated inspection system was developed to classify apples based on bruising in real time. Raman spectroscopy was used for apple bruise testing. Fifty Delicious apples were randomly divided into two groups, 25 apples for light bruise group (falling height 50 mm), and 25 for heavy bruise (falling height 300 mm); each group was divided into a modeling set and a testing set. A Nicolet FT-Raman Spectroscope was employed to obtain apple spectra. The Spectrascope utilized OMNIC E. S. P. 5.1 software. The unbruised and bruised spectra were analyzed and classified by WinDAS using canonical variate analysis (CVA) and principle component analysis (PCA) models, on both the training and testing sets. The PCA and CVA model analysis satisfactorily classified the apples by bruise. Therefore, the results show that the Raman spectroscope permits non-destructive bruise determination with good results.

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