Click on “Download PDF” for the PDF version or on the title for the HTML version.

If you are not an ASABE member or if your employer has not arranged for access to the full-text, Click here for options.

Identifying Advantages and Disadvantages of Variable Rate Irrigation: An Updated Review  Open Access

Published by the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, St. Joseph, Michigan

Citation:  Applied Engineering in Agriculture. 35(6): 837-852. (doi: 10.13031/aea.13128) @2019
Authors:   Susan A O’Shaughnessy, Steven R. Evett, Paul D. Colaizzi, Manuel A Andrade, Thomas H. Marek, Derek M. Heeren, Freddie R. Lamm, Jacob L. LaRue
Keywords:   Center pivots, Crop water use efficiency, Irrigation, Management zones, Moving sprinkler irrigation systems, Precision irrigation, Sensor based systems.


Variable rate irrigation (VRI) sprinklers on mechanical move irrigation systems (center pivot or lateral move) have been commercially available since 2004. Although the number of VRI, zone or individual sprinkler, systems adopted to date is lower than expected there is a continued interest to harness this technology, especially when climate variability, regulatory nutrient management, water conservation policies, and declining water for agriculture compound the challenges involved for irrigated crop production. This article reviews the potential advantages and potential disadvantages of VRI technology for moving sprinklers, provides updated examples on such aspects, suggests a protocol for designing and implementing VRI technology and reports on the recent advancements. The advantages of VRI technology are demonstrated in the areas of agronomic improvement, greater economic returns, environmental protection and risk management, while the main drawbacks to VRI technology include the complexity to successfully implement the technology and the lack of evidence that it assures better performance in net profit or water savings. Although advances have been made in VRI technologies, its penetration into the market will continue to depend on tangible and perceived benefits by producers.

(Download PDF)    (Export to EndNotes)