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Hydraulic Conditions Required to Not Move Unconsolidated Surface Material Located within Feedlots

Published by the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, St. Joseph, Michigan www.asabe.org

Citation:  Transactions of the ASABE. 56(3): 911-918. (doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.13031/trans.56.9546) @2013
Authors:   John E. Gilley, Gregory D. Boone, David B. Marx
Keywords:   Feedlots Flow measurement Flow resistance Hydraulic roughness Manure management Manure runoff Runoff Sediment detention Sediment discharge Sedimentation.
<italic>Abstract.</italic>

Beef cattle feedlots contain unconsolidated surface material that accumulates within feedlot pens during a feeding cycle. Runoff from feedlot surfaces is diverted into settling basins. The storage capacity of the settling basins will be substantially reduced if large quantities of solid material are transported in runoff from the feedlot surfaces. The objective of this study was to identify the hydraulic conditions that will not move unconsolidated surface material located within feedlots in order to minimize sediment transport. Selected sizes and a composite sample of unconsolidated surface material were placed within 0.75 m wide by 4.0 m long metal frames. Flow was then introduced at the top of the frames in successive increments. The discharge rate and flow velocity necessary to cause movement of unconsolidated surface material was measured. Hydraulic measurements were used to determine the ratio of critical flow depth to particle diameter, critical flow rate, critical flow velocity, critical shear velocity, critical Reynolds number, critical shear stress, critical dimensionless shear stress, and critical boundary Reynolds number. Measurements of these parameters for the composite material were 0.556, 0.499 L s-1, 0.0787 m s-1, 0.0643 m s-1, 695, 4.12 Pa, 0.0436, and 1040, respectively. Darcy-Weisbach roughness coefficients were calculated for each particle size class and the composite sample at varying flow rates. The information presented in this study can be used to identify the hydraulic conditions required to not move unconsolidated surface material located within feedlots in order to minimize sediment transport.