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Published by the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, St. Joseph, Michigan www.asabe.orgCitation: Isermann, Rolf. 2006. Section 2.2 Sensors, pp. 32-52, of Chapter 2 Hardware, in CIGR Handbook of Agricultural Engineering Volume VI Information Technology. Edited by CIGR--The International Commission of Agricultural Engineering; Volume Editor, Axel Munack. St. Joseph, Michigan, USA: ASABE. .
Authors: R. Isermann
Keywords: Sensors, Measurement, Signals, Transducers, Amplifiers, Displacement, Velocity, Acceleration, Vibration, Oscillation, Force, Pressure, Torque, Temperature, Flow, EMC, Integrated and intelligent sensors
Sensors and measurement equipment are of fundamental importance for all technical products and processes. They are used to indicate some variables of the processes, to monitor the internal state and the basis for manual control, automatic feedforward and feedback control, supervision, and optimization. After considering the elements of a measurement system and a classification of measured quantities, some sensor properties and signal types are discussed. This is followed by brief descriptions of sensors that are required frequently in industrial, mechatronic, and agricultural systems. This includes measurement of displacement, velocity, acceleration, vibration, force, pressure, torque, temperature, and flow. Finally, A/D conversion, electromagnetic compatibility, and integrated and intelligent sensors are discussed.